Social and Cultural Factors in Health Behavior

Social and Cultural Factors in Health Behavior
Humans are social creatures that in their lives cannot live alone so as to form a unity of life called society. With this definition, it turns out that the understanding of society is still felt broad and abstract, so to be more concrete, there are several elements of society, elements of society are grouped into 2 parts, namely (References from Influencing Socio Cultural Factors Illness Behaviour Among Undergraduates);
Social unity; is a form and arrangement of individual units that interact with people's lives.
Social link; is a set of norms of all levels that revolve around a basic need in community life. These norms provide guidelines for the behavior of someone who lives in society.
Along with the development of science and technology that many bring changes to human life both in terms of changes in lifestyle and social order, including in the field of health which is often confronted in a matter that is directly related to the norms and culture adopted by the people who live in a certain place .

In a world that consists of various ethnics certainly has a lot of culture in society. Sometimes, the culture of one ethnic group with another ethnicity can differ greatly. This causes a positive culture, can be considered a negative culture in other ethnicities. So it is not surprising that health problems in the World are so complex.
One factor that determines the condition of public health is the behavior of public health itself. Where the process of formation of this behavior is influenced by several factors. One of them is socio-cultural factors, if these factors have been embedded and internalized in the life and activities of the community there is a tendency to change the behavior that has been formed is difficult to do.

For that reason, to overcome and understand a health problem requires adequate knowledge of the basic culture and culture of an area. So that in disseminating health to the wider community can be more directed, the implication is an increase in the degree of public health.
Socio-cultural influences in society provide an important role in achieving the highest degree of health. Socio-cultural development in society is a sign that the community in an area has experienced a change in the thought process. Social and cultural changes can have both positive and negative impacts.

The relationship between culture and health is very closely related and as one example a simple village community can survive by means of certain medications in accordance with their traditions. Culture or culture can shape habits and responses to health and disease in all societies regardless of their level.
That is why it is important for health workers to not only promote health, but also make them understand about the process of occurrence of an illness and how to correct beliefs or cultures that are adhered to with health.

Individual and community understanding in understanding "Socio-Cultural Aspects Affecting Behavior and Health Status" is very minimal even though in the developing times in this country there are already enough intermediaries to convey information. For individuals who know the impact or understanding of the importance of "Socio-Cultural Aspects Affecting Behavior and Health Status" as a whole but do not pay attention directly to the consequences, they tend to be indifferent and always feel sorry when knowing that the importance of "Socio-Cultural Aspects Affecting Behavior And health status ".

Behavioral Execution Process
Rogers research (1974) reveals that before people adopt new behaviors (new behaviors), in that person a sequential process occurs, ie.
1. Awareness (awareness), namely the person realizes in the sense of knowing the setimulus (object) first
2. Interest, namely people begin to be attracted to the stimulus
3. Evaluation (weighing whether or not the stimulus is good for him). This means that the respondent's attitude is better
4. Trial, people have started trying new behaviors
5. Adoption, the subject has behaved recently in accordance with his knowledge, awareness, and attitude to the stimulus

If the acceptance of new behavior or adoption of behavior through a process like this is based on knowledge, awareness, and a positive attitude then the behavior will become habit or long lasting. Notoatmodjo, 2003 p. 122
Socio-cultural values are the cultural heritage of the country's ancestors which have been successfully preserved to become historical records. through a process of struggle for thousands of years of human life against nature and against various threats, formed a culture that follows the appropriate development in the situation and place where the culture is developing.

So socio-cultural values are not just there, but there is a chronological record, for example Japan, which supposedly many ancestors came from "pirates", making Japanese culture appear "bushido". (knighthood)
social and cultural relations are very close to the state, because in the international world, there is an "assessment". for example, if a country has been labeled a "terrorist state", then its future will end. Who wants to "deal" with terrorists who don't know "humanity"?
The world has had a bad record. including the May events, the Bali bombing, etc ... so the original culture has been shifted by the bad image of these bad events because of the influence of Arab culture or western culture that imports and tries to erase the local culture.

Culture that influences health
In HL Blum's theory of health status, several factors that influence health status are explained, including: the environment consisting of the physical, socio-cultural, economic, behavioral, hereditary, and health care environment. Furthermore Blum also explained, that the socio-cultural environment It not only affects health status, but also affects health behavior.
As we know that the world community consists of many ethnic groups who have diverse cultural backgrounds. The cultural environment greatly affects the behavior of people who have that culture, so that with diverse cultures, it causes variations in human behavior in all respects, including in health behavior .

With these problems, health workers who provide health services to the community with diverse cultural backgrounds, need to know the culture and the community it serves, so that the health services provided to the community will provide optimal results, namely improving public health.
Human is a social creature that in life cannot live alone so it forms a unity of life called society. With this definition, it turns out that the understanding of society is still felt broad and abstract so that to be more concrete there are several elements of society, elements of society are grouped into 2 parts namely: social and social institutions. Social unity is a form and arrangement of individual units that interact with people's lives. Meanwhile, what is meant by social institutions is a set of norms from all levels that revolve around a basic need in people's lives. These norms provide Guidelines for the behavior of someone who lives in society.

Definition of Women's Empowerment

Definition of Women's Empowerment
Women's Empowerment is a systematic and planned effort to achieve gender equality and justice in family and community life. Women's empowerment ”as a human resource, the potential of women in terms of quantity and quality is not below that of men. However, in reality it is still found that the status of women and the role of women in society are still subordinate and not as equal partners with men ”.

Development Goals for Women's Empowerment (Theoretical Study on the Empowerment of Women)
To improve the status, position and condition of women in order to achieve progress that is equal to men
To build children who are healthy, smart, cheerful, and devoted and protected.

Realization of Women's Empowerment
Increasing the position and role of women in various fields of life
Enhancing the role of women as decision makers in realizing gender equality and justice
Improving the quality of women's organizations' independence and leadership by maintaining the value of unity and integrity
Increase the commitment and ability of all institutions that fight for gender equality and equity
Developing women's empowerment efforts, family and community welfare and child protection.

Basic Policy for Women's Empowerment
Gender mainstreaming in national development is done through a "one door policy"
Improving the quality of women's human resources,
Updated laws and regulations
Elimination of violence against women
Enforcement of human rights (HAM) for women,
Improved child welfare and protection
The ability of government institutions in empowering women. Increasing community participation
Expansion of the reach of women's empowerment
Increasing the application of international commitments.

Definition of Empowering Women's Education
The reality of injustice for women starts from marginalization, God's creature number two, half the price of men, as servants, dependent on men, and even often treated harshly or half-slaves. As if positioning women as second-class community groups, which impact on the reduction of women's rights including the right to education.
One approach that is now often used in improving the quality of life and raising the dignity of women is the empowerment of women's education. The concept of empowering education is very important because it provides a positive perspective on women. So that women in reaching the reality of life are not seen as being lacking.
Conceptually, empowerment or empowerment, comes from the word "power" which means empowerment or power. Empowerment is a way through which a person, the people, the organization. and the community is directed to be able to dominate (rule over) their lives. Empowerment is a process by which people become strong enough to participate in various controls over, and influence on events and institutions that affect their lives.

So empowering women's education is a way and process of improving women's education in the hope of being able to master their lives. The purpose of empowerment is to increase the power of women who, in the reality of life, have suffered unlucky fate. Empowerment refers to efforts to reallocate power through changing social structures.
Empowerment of women's education emphasizes the aspects of skills, knowledge, and power that are sufficient to influence their lives and the lives of others they care about. Empowerment refers to abilities, especially weak groups, to have access to productive resources that enable them to improve their quality of life and can participate in the development process and decisions that affect them.
Given that education is a very important and fundamental issue in women's empowerment, it is a must that empowerment of women's education is also carried out as a prerequisite for women's empowerment itself.

The empowerment of women's education is a way or effort in order to improve and develop education for women. This can be done including by:
1. Giving the widest possible opportunity for women to be able to attend or take as much education as possible. This is necessary given the continued strengthening of the community's paradigm that the highest level of women's education will return to the kitchen anyway. This is what causes the low (most) education of women.
2. Conducting campaigns and raising awareness of the importance of education and equal rights between men and women to get education. To minimize the harassment or injustice experienced by women, it is very possible socialization and awareness of the importance of education becomes a necessity.
3. Conducting research on community participation especially women in empowering and improving education for women. This activity is very urgent, because this will be the basic foundation for anyone who campaigns for the gender movement. This fact is a benchmark to determine the orientation of the gender movement. If in one place, the level of education of women is very minimal, then various activities can be arranged to cover the deficiencies.
4. Prepare anticipatory steps for all obstacles and obstacles that will be encountered in the process of empowering women's education. This needs to be done because not a few facts in the field found, different from expectations. So if there is careful preparation for anticipating obstacles that will be encountered, it can be said that any activity will proceed smoothly.

3. Indicators of Success in Empowering Women's Education
Development of women's education empowerment is carried out to support and accelerate the achievement of women's empowerment towards quality of life and equal partners of men and women engaged in all fields or sectors. The successful development of women's education empowerment is the goal of everyone. But to know success as a process, it can be seen from the indicators of the achievement of its success. The indicators of empowering female education are as follows:
1. There are adequate facilities and means as well as legislation that supports women to take education as much as possible.
2. Increased participation and enthusiasm of women to try to obtain and obtain education and teaching for themselves.
3. Increasing the number of percentages of women in educational institutions especially tertiary institutions.
4. Increasing the involvement of women activists in the education empowerment campaign for women.
But more than that all is the creation of egalitarian mindset and paradigm. Women also need to be able to play an active role in some activities that are proportional. If this has been realized, then women's education has really been empowered.

Definition of Stock Return

Definition of Stock Return
Returns for shareholders can be in the form of cash dividends or changes in stock prices. Influence of financial ratios on stock returns, Returns can be realized returns or are called actual returns and expected returns. Realized return is a return that has occurred. This return is calculated based on historical data. Realized return is important, because it is used as a measure of company performance and is also useful as a basis for determining future expectations and risks. Expected return is the return that is expected to be obtained by investors in the future. In contrast to the realization of returns that are already happening.

According to Hartono (2008: 109) stock returns are the results obtained from investments. Return on investment depends on the investment instrument. There are guarantees of return that will be received, for example, certification of deposits in banks that provide interest of a certain percentage that is positive, and bonds promising interest coupons that are paid periodically, or all at once and surely, do not depend on company finances. Another thing with stocks, stocks do not promise a definite return to investors. However, there are several components of stock returns that allow investors to earn dividends, bonus shares and capital gains.

Return has 2 components, namely current inncome and capital gain. The form of current income is the benefits obtained through periodic payments, such as profits in the form of dividends which are a form of the company's fundamental performance. While capital gains in the form of profits received due to the difference in the purchase price of the investment instrument unit. The amount of capital gain will be positive if the selling price of shares owned is higher than the purchase price. Factors that influence the return of an investment include, internal factors such as the quality and reputation of its management, its capital structure, the company's debt structure. External factors such as the influence of fiscal and monetary policy.

Capital Market Benefits
The benefits of the capital market are divided into two, namely the benefits that are intended for issuers and for investors when the primary market is finished. 2. There is no convenant so that management can be more free in managing company funds. 3. High company solvency so as to improve company image. 4. The issuer's dependence on banks is smaller. The capital market for investors has several benefits, namely: 1. The value of investment develops following economic growth, which is reflected in rising stock prices. 2. Obtain dividends for those who own or hold shares and floating interest for bondholders. 3. Can simultaneously invest in several instruments that reduce risk.

Definition of Stock Return according to the expert
Stock returns can be divided into two, namely actual stock returns (expected returns) and expected returns or expected returns. Return is actually a return that has occurred calculated from the difference in current prices relative to previous prices. While the expected return is the return that is expected to be obtained by investors in the future.
The return has two components, namely current income and capital gain (Wahyudi, 2003). The form of current income is in the form of profits obtained through periodic payments in the form of dividends as a result of the company's fundamental performance. While capital gains in the form of profits received because of the difference between the selling price and the purchase price of shares. The amount of capital gains of a stock will be positive, if the selling price of shares owned is higher than the purchase price.

According Jogiyanto (2003: 109) shares are divided into two: (1) return reaisation is a return that has occurred, (2) expectation return is a return that is expected to be obtained by investors in the future. Based on the definition of return, that the return of a stock is the same as the results obtained from investment by calculating the difference in current period stock prices with the previous period by ignoring dividends, then the formula can be written (Ross et al., 2003: 238).
According to Brigham et al (1999: 192), stated Stock Return is: "meansure the financial performance of an investment." In this study, return is used on an investment to measure the financial results of a company.
According to Home and Wachoviz (1998: 26) stated that Stock Return is: "return as benefit which is related to the owner that includes cash dividend last year which is paid, together with market cost appreciation or capital gain when it is realized in the end of the year ".
According to Jones (2000: 124) argues that Stock Return is: "return is yield and capital gain (lost)". (1) Yield, i.e. cash flow paid periodically to shareholders (in the form of dividends), (2) Capital Gain (loss), which is the difference between the share price at the time of purchase and the stock price at the time of sale.
According to Corrado and Jodan (2000: 5) states that Stock Return is: "return from investment security is cash flow and capital gain / loss". Based on the opinions that have been stated, it can be concluded that stock returns are the profits obtained from the ownership of investors' shares on investments made, which consists of dividends and capital gains / losses.

Share Return Classification
Return has a very significant role in determining the value of a stock. Returns can be classified into two, namely realized realized returns and expected return expectations. Realized returns are used as a basis for determining expected return by investors in the future. Realized returns are measured using total returns, relative returns, cumulative returns, and adjusted returns. Total return is the overall return of an investment in a certain period consisting of capital gains and yields Jogiyanto, 2008: 195. Returns consisting of capital gains and yields can be formulated as follows Jogiyanto, 2008: 198: Capital gains are the difference between current investment prices relative to past period prices: Note: P t = Current period stock prices P t-1 = Previous period stock prices Yield is a percentage of periodic cash receipts to the investment price of a certain period of an investment, and for ordinary shares where a periodic payment of D t rupiah per sheet, the yield can be written as follows: Note: D t = Cash dividends paid P t-1 = Share price of the previous period So that the total return can be formulated as follows: Note: P t = Current period stock price P t-1 = Share price of the previous period D t = Cash dividends paid Remembering not always a company distributes cash dividends periodically to its shareholders , then stock returns can be calculated as follows: Note: P t = Current period stock prices P t-1 = Share price of the previous period.

Understanding Development Communication Theory

Understanding Development Communication Theory
1. Dependency Theory
Globally what is meant by dependencies is a situation where the main decisions that affect economic progress in developing countries such as decisions about commodity prices, investment patterns, monetary relations, made by individuals or institutions outside the country concerned.
The underdevelopment process that struck new countries, according to Shaibu (2020 on Mass Communication Chain for National Progress and Development), included three historical stages consisting of:
a. The comparative advantage stage. During the period after the industrial revolution, when an international labor division system was created and the world economy was structured, industrial countries in general specialized themselves in activities marked by widespread technical progress.
b. Import substitution stage. The formation of a small social group with privileges among the underdeveloped nations raises a necessity to import certain amounts of goods to meet the consumption patterns adopted by this group in imitating a rich nation.
c. The stage of development of a multi-national company (PMN). The emergence of PMN has become an important phenomenon in the international economic order, because internal transactions carried out by PMN have taken over existing market operations so far.

2. Another Development or "OTHER" Development
Another central idea is that there is no single universal path to carrying out development. According to this concept, development must be understood as an integral, multi-dimensional and dialectical process, which can differ from one country to another.
The core elements of the PYL concept are, "based on the writings of Bennet (1977), chapel (1980), Galtung (1980), peroux (1983), Rist (1980) and Todaro (1977) are as follows:
a. Need-oriented: which is adapted to meet human needs in the material and non-material fields.
b. Endogeneous: namely starting from the heart of each society that formulates with full sovereignty, values and their own future views.
c. Relying on one's own abilities: that is, every society must first rely on its own strengths and resources in terms of the energy of its members, as well as their natural and cultural environment.
d. Ecologically good: that is the rational use of biosfir resources with full awareness of the potential of the local ecosystem, as well as the global and existing boundaries for the present and the future.
e. Relying on structural transformation: that is, what is demanded in social relations, economic activities and special distributions, as well as in power structures to realize the conditions of management and participation in decision making by all people subject to the decision, from rural, urban, to community members the world as a whole.

3. Sustainable Development.
The process of economic growth as revealed in the last quarter of this century has multiplied problems in both the industrial countries and Third World countries, as well as individuals in each of these countries. In 1985 the World Commission on Environment and Development was appointed by the United Nations through a two-year study of public hearings on five continents. The tasks of this communication are:
a. Revisiting important environmental and development issues and formulating innovative, concrete and realistic action proposals to overcome them.
b. Review and propose new forms of international cooperation on the environment and development that can change existing patterns and influence policies and events in the desired direction of change.
c. Raise the level of understanding and commitment to actions among individuals, voluntary organizations, businesses, institutions and government.

4. Theory of Diffusion of Innovations
According to Rogers and Shoemaker (1971), diffusion studies examine messages in the form of ideas or new ideas. In developing societies such as in developing countries, diffusion of innovation occurs continuously from one place to another. The diffusion of innovation as a social phenomenon takes place simultaneously with the social changes that occur. A social change takes place, one of which is caused by the introduction or inclusion of new things, ideas and ideas. The new things are known as innovations.
The entry of innovation into the middle of a social system is mainly due to communication between members of a community, or between a community and other communities. Thus, communication is an important factor in forming an innovation.

In the process of disseminating innovation the main elements, namely:
1. An innovation.
2. Which is communicated through certain channels.
3. Within a certain period.
4. Among the members of a social system.

In the view of the community which becomes the preacher in spreading innovation, there are five attributes that mark each new idea or method, namely: relative benefits, harmony, complexity, can be tried, and can be seen. Communities that face the spread of innovation are grouped into several groups, namely: innovators, early recipients, early majority, late majority, and laggard. In accepting an innovation, usually a person goes through a number of stages, namely: the knowledge stage, the persuasion stage, the decision stage, the implementation phase, and the confirmation stage.

Legume commodity which has a high fat content

Legume commodity which has a high fat content
Peanut (Arachis hypogaea (L.) Merr.) Is one of the legume commodities that has a high fat content, fatty acid content especially oleic and linoleic in peanuts is increasingly gaining public attention because it is very important for health, fatty acid composition of peanut oil (Arachis hypogaea L.), both of which are fatty acids important for health because it can reduce levels of LDL-cholesterol in the blood so that it can reduce the risk of heart disease, and can increase insulin production so that it is very beneficial for people with diabetes mellitus.In addition, the fatty acid content also affects the oxidation stability of the seeds that affect rancidity. Of the 45 accessions of germplasm characterized by Balitkabi, there is diversity for total fat content and fatty acids, with total fat levels ranging from 36.4 to 46.5 percent, most of which contain unsaturated fatty acids, especially oleic acid and linoleic acid. and linoleic acid occupies the highest composition (70.8-85.4%) of total fat.

The average content of oleic, linoleic, palmitic, behenic, and arachidic acids were 37.7%, 41.2%, 12.5%, 3.6%, and 3.0% of total fatty acids respectively. The highest oleic acid content in MLGA 0261 (49.3%) and the highest linoleic acid (48.9%) in MLGA 0077. The ratio of Oleic / Linoleic (O / L Ratio) is classified as low ranging from 0.66-1.38. Oleic acid has a negative correlation with linoleic acid (-0.59 **), palmitic acid (-0.49 **), and behenic acid (-0.45 **). This shows that the increase in oleic acid will be followed by a decrease in the content of linoleic acid, palmitic acid, and behenic acid. Based on the content of oleic acid, linoleic, palmitic, arachidate, and behenic there are three groups of peanuts, namely group I (19 genotypes) having palmitic acid, linoleic, and behenic above average, group II (25 genotypes) contain oleic acid and arachidate above average, and group III (1 genotype) with high oleic acid content of other low fatty acids. The varieties of Elephant, Tapir, Turangga, Sima, Lion, Zebra, Panter, Tuban, and Talam-1 are included in group I, while the rhino, hedgehog, hedgehog and hare varieties belong to group II, and MLGA 0261 includes group III.

Peanut oil is vegetable oil used for cooking oil, the basic ingredient in making margarine mayonnaise, salad dressing and white butter (shortening), and has advantages when compared to other types of oils, because it can be used repeatedly to fry food. Besides peanut oil is widely used in the soap industry, face cream, shaving cream, hair washers and other cosmetic ingredients. In the pharmaceutical field, peanut oil can be used for a mixture of making adrenaline and asthma drugs. From the amount of 9.1 percent of nitrogen content of peanuts, 8.74% of them consisted of albumen, gluten and globulin fractions. The content of essential amino acids in ground nuts.

Peanut oil contains 76-82% unsaturated fatty acids, consisting of 40 45% oleic acid and 30-35% linoleic acid. Saturated fatty acids mostly consist of palmitic acid, while myristic acid levels around 5%. The high linoleic acid content will reduce oil stability. The stability of the oil will be increased by hydrogenation or by the addition of anti-oxidants. In peanut oil there is a compound of tocopherol which is a natural antioxidant and is effective in inhibiting the oxidation process of peanut oil. Composition of Peanut Oil Fatty Acids.

In peanuts there are 18% carbohydrates with starch content of 0.5-5.0% and sucrose content of 4-7%. The vitamins contained are riboflavin, thiamine, nicotinic acid, vitamins E and K. Most mineral content consists of calcium, magnesium, phosphorus and sulfur. Toxins in peanuts, called aflatoxins, are produced by the fungus Aspergillus flavus. This aflatoxin consists of B1, B2, G1, G2. Codes B and G indicate the intensity of fluorecence blue (blue) and green (green) when exposed to ultraviolet light. Old-aged peanuts, which are used as seeds sometimes contain aflatoxins.

Physical and Chemical Properties, Peanut oil is better oil than corn oil, cottonseed oil, olive oil, sunflower oil, to be used as salad dressing, and stored under -11 ° C. This is due to the fact that peanut oil is solid in the form of amorphous form, where the solid layer does not break during the freezing process. Peanut oil which is cooled at -6.6 ° C, will produce a large amount of solid triglycerides. Based on the flow test, the solid phase is formed perfectly at -6.6 ° C. Physical-chemical properties of peanut oil before and after purification can be seen in Table. Physical-Chemical Properties of Peanut Oil Before and After Purification

Peanut (Arachis Hypogeae, L.) Is a food crop in the form of shrubs originating from South America, precisely from Brazilia. The first planting was carried out by Indians (Native American tribes). On the American continent, growing was carried out by migrants from Europe. These Peanuts first entered the World in the early 17th century, brought by Chinese and Portuguese traders. Other names for peanuts are una beans, suuk, jebrol nuts, bandung beans, tuban nuts, kole nuts, peanut nuts. The English of peanut is "peanut" or "groundnut".

Peanut content, The World Community already knows that nuts contain nutrients that are beneficial to the human body. The type of beans itself is very diverse, which is widely consumed by people including green beans, peanuts, kidney beans. Peanuts, this type of bean is widely used for a variety of processed cakes, food or vegetables. Next we will discuss more about the nutritional content and benefits of these peanuts for the human body.

Peanuts are rich in fat, contain high protein, iron, vitamin E and calcium, vitamin B complex and Phosphorus, vitamins A and K, lecithin, choline and calcium. The protein content in peanuts is much higher than meat, eggs and soy beans. Has a sweet taste and is widely used to make various types of cakes. Peanuts are also said to contain ingredients that can build endurance in preventing several diseases. Eating an ounce of peanuts five times a week is reported to prevent heart disease. Peanuts work to increase the ability of heart pumps and reduce resoki coronary heart disease. Eating a handful of peanuts every day, especially diabetes can help substance deficiency.

Understanding and Cooperative Agricultural Systems

Understanding and Cooperative Agricultural Systems
The definition of cooperatives according to Law Number 25 of 1992 is a business field consisting of cooperative persons or legal entities by basing their activities based on cooperative principles as well as a people's economic movement based on the principle of kinship.
Cooperative is a collection of people and not a collection of capital. Cooperatives must truly serve the interests of humanity solely and not the material. Linking agricultural research center with seed producer cooperatives farmers, cooperation in cooperatives is based on a sense of equality, and awareness of its members. Cooperatives are a forum for economic and social democracy. Cooperatives are jointly owned by members, management and managers. The business is arranged in accordance with the wishes of the members through a member meeting.
Cooperatives as business entities can conduct their own business activities and can also work together with other business entities, such as private companies and state companies.
The difference between cooperatives and other business entities, can be classified as follows:

Viewed in terms of organization
Cooperatives are organizations that have the same interests for their members. In carrying out its business, the highest power in a cooperative lies with the members, while in a non-cooperative business entity, its members are limited to those who have capital, and in carrying out its activities the highest power lies with the owners of venture capital.

In terms of business objectives
Cooperatives aim to meet the needs of their members by serving members as fairly as possible, while non-cooperative business entities generally aim to gain profits.
Viewed in terms of the attitude of business relations
Cooperatives always hold coordination or cooperation between one cooperative and another cooperative, while non-cooperative business entities often compete with each other.
Viewed in terms of business management
The management of cooperative businesses is carried out openly, while the non-cooperative business entities manage their businesses privately.
Is the definition of cooperative different from "mutual cooperation"
Between cooperatives and mutual cooperation have in common, but also have very basic differences. These differences include the following:
Cooperatives were born due to economic pressure, while mutual cooperation was created whenever needed and after it was dissolved.
Cooperatives were established for a long period of time, while mutual cooperation was born because of cultural customs, taking place in a short time (only when needed).
Cooperatives are more dynamic in how they work, whereas mutual cooperation is generally carried out statically and awaits command or command.
Cooperatives have a certain number of members, while mutual cooperation is unlimited.
Cooperatives have work programs, statutes, and by-laws, while mutual cooperation does not have work programs, by-laws, and by-laws.
Cooperatives are legal entities, whereas mutual cooperation is not legal entities and are spontaneous.

Characteristics of Cooperatives
Some characteristics of cooperatives are:
Association of people.
Profit sharing according to comparison of services. Capital services are limited.
The goal is to ease the economic burden of its members, improve the welfare of its members, in particular and society in general.
Non-permanent capital, changes according to the number of member deposits.
Not concerned with capital income / business work but membership principle of togetherness.
In a meeting each member of each member or vote without regard to the amount of each capital.
Each member is free to enter / exit (members change) so that in the cooperative there is no permanent capital.
Like companies in the form of Limited Liability Companies (PT), the Cooperative has the form of a Legal Entity.
Running a business
The cooperative is responsible for the management.
Cooperative is not a collection of capital of several people who aim to seek maximum profit.
Cooperative is a joint family and mutual cooperation effort. Each member is obliged to work together to achieve the goal, namely the welfare of the members.
Losses are shared between members. If the cooperative suffers a loss, the members carry it together. Members who are unable to be freed from the burden / dependents losses. Losses are borne by members who are able.

Cooperative Purpose
According to Law Number 25 of 1992 Article 3 cooperatives aim to advance the welfare of its members in particular and the community in general and participate in building the national economic order in order to create an advanced, just and prosperous society based on Pancasila and the 1945 Constitution.

Strengths and Weaknesses of Cooperatives
The things that are an advantage of cooperatives in Agriculture are:
Be open and voluntary.
The amount of principal savings and mandatory savings is not burdensome for members.
Each member has the same voting rights, not based on the amount of capital
Aiming at increasing the welfare of members and not merely looking for profit.

Things that are a weakness of cooperatives in Agriculture are:
Cooperatives are difficult to develop because of limited capital.
Inadequate management in managing cooperatives.
The caretaker is sometimes dishonest.
Lack of cooperation between management, supervisors and members.
Cooperative example

Saving and loan cooperative
Savings and loan cooperatives are cooperatives that function more or less the same as banks.
The difference is that a savings and loan cooperative does not take advantage or interest from the borrowing member.
Some money is actually loaned with the aim of building a business according to an agreement made previously.

Producer's Cooperative
Producer's cooperatives are cooperatives whose members are people engaged in the production of goods.
Namely, small to medium-sized businesses (SMEs), which are established home industries.
Its activity is the procurement of raw materials.

Business entity
Business entities are juridical (legal), technical, and economic entities that aim to gain profits. Business entities are often equated with companies, although in reality they are different. The main difference is that a Business Entity is an institution while a company is a place where the Business Entity manages the factors of production.

Types of Business Entity in Agriculture
SOE
State-Owned Enterprise (or SOE) is a business entity whose capital is wholly or partly owned by the Government. The status of employees of these business entities are SOE employees, not civil servants. SOE itself now has 3 types namely Perjan, Perum and Persero.

Perjan
Perjan is a form of state-owned enterprise that is wholly owned by the government. This Perjan is service oriented to the community, so that it always loses money. Now there are no SOE companies that use the struggle model because of the high cost to maintain these agreements in accordance with Law (Law) Number 19 of 2003 concerning SOEs.

Corn Cultivation

Corn Cultivation
In the world, corn is widely known by the community as a staple food substitute for rice and various other processed foods. In addition to the seeds, yield components of maize (Zea Mays L.), other parts of the corn plant such as leaves, stems, and can also be used as animal feed ingredients.
Various types of corn can be cultivated by farmers, not least with hybrid corn which is believed to be of superior quality and able to produce more corn seeds and in accordance with market demand.

Zea Mays L. is a planting method designed to increase crop productivity through increasing plant population and utilizing the effects of peripheral plants; where planting is done by closing plant spacing in rows and stretching plant spacing between Zea Mays L.
The Agency for Agricultural Research and Development (Balitbangtan) tests Zea Mays L. planting on corn. Unlike rice, the application of the Zea Mays L. system in maize plants is more directed at increasing the reception of sunlight intensity for the optimization of photosynthesis and assimilation as well as facilitating plant maintenance, especially weeding both manually and with herbicides, fertilizing, and providing water.
Utilization of the Zea Mays L. system is also associated with efforts to increase production through an increase in the corn crop index (IP). With an increase in IP, yields can increase and land management becomes more productive. some stages that need to be done when it will cultivate corn, the following is an explanation.

Seed Preparation, We recommend that you have selected corn seeds that have been certified. Usually the corn seed has been given seed treatment treatment, namely by coating the fungicide on the seed that functions to protect the plant from various diseases and facilitate the conditions for growing corn plants.
The recommended population of plants for corn is around 66,000 - 71,000 plants / ha. For this reason, the usual planting distance applied is 75 cm x 20 cm (1 plant / hole) or 70 cm x 20 cm (1 plant / hole). In areas with labor problems, planting distances of 75 cm x 40 cm (2 plants / holes) or 70 cm x 40 cm (2 plants / holes) can be applied.
If planting is carried out by planting Zea Mays L., so that the plant population remains between 66,000 - 71,000 plants / ha, then the spacing applied is 25 cm x (50 cm - 100 cm) 1 plant / hole or 50 cm x (50 cm - 100 cm) 2 plants / hole (population 66,000 plants / ha).

Test results of hybrid corn varieties Bima-19 URI and P-27 in the MK 2 planting season 2014 (after rice) in Grobogan Regency did not show any significant difference between the planting distances of Zea Mays L. 2: 1 25 cm x (40 cm - 70 cm) 1 plant / hole (population 72,727 plants / ha) and 40 cm x 70 cm tiles 2 plants / hole (population 71,429 plants / ha), with an accumulative average of yields for both varieties of 9.11 t / ha and 8.99 respectively t / ha at both spacing.

From the results of tests conducted, it is recommended that the selection of Zea Mays L. 2: 1 with a spacing of 25 cm x (40 cm - 70 cm) 1 plant / hole has not been proven to significantly improve yield compared to 40 cm x 70 cm 2 plant spacing. /hole. Although the number of plant populations is greater than the spacing above, the dense distance between Zea Mays L. is likely to be a factor that causes the effects of peripheral plants (which benefit plant growth) to be less visible in increasing yield.
The next field test was still with the Bima-19 URI and P-27 varieties, in the 2015 MK planting season (after rice) in Demak Regency. The results obtained show that Zea Mays L. 2: 1 corn with spacing of 25 x (50 - 100) cm 1 plant / hole (population of 66,000 plants / ha) significantly gives higher productivity than Zea Mays L. 4: 1 spacing 25 x (50 - 100) cm 1 plant / hole, but not significantly different from the productivity obtained from the spacing of 40 x 70 cm tiles with 2 plants / hole (population 71,429 plants / ha).
The productivity obtained respectively for tiles, Zea Mays L. 2: 1, and Zea Mays L. 4: 1 is 10.05 t / ha; 10.91 t / ha; and 9.06 t / ha. Noting these results, Zea Mays L. 2: 1 with a spacing of 25 x (500 - 100) cm 1 plant / hole is recommended to be improved to provide a higher number of plant populations and with a more pronounced edge crop effect to produce significantly more productivity high. As an alternative that can be recommended is Zea Mays L. 2: 1 with a total population of between 66,000 - 72,727 plants / ha.

The soil is loosened with a hoe or plowed as deep as 25-30 cm, then flattened / ground using a rake. After that, basic fertilization is done using manure and chemical fertilizer. A good manure is goat manure, while the chemical fertilizer can use NPK.
The ratio of manure and chemical is 40: 1 to 50: 1, that is, every 40 buckets of manure can be mixed with 1 bucket of NPK fertilizer. In addition, liming can also be done by using dolomite lime.
Furthermore, in muddy soil conditions, beds should be made so that the seeds are not flooded and not rotten. The width of the beds and the distance between the beds are 100 cm and 50 cm, while the distance in the row is 20-25 cm.