Corn Cultivation

Corn Cultivation
In the world, corn is widely known by the community as a staple food substitute for rice and various other processed foods. In addition to the seeds, yield components of maize (Zea Mays L.), other parts of the corn plant such as leaves, stems, and can also be used as animal feed ingredients.
Various types of corn can be cultivated by farmers, not least with hybrid corn which is believed to be of superior quality and able to produce more corn seeds and in accordance with market demand.

Zea Mays L. is a planting method designed to increase crop productivity through increasing plant population and utilizing the effects of peripheral plants; where planting is done by closing plant spacing in rows and stretching plant spacing between Zea Mays L.
The Agency for Agricultural Research and Development (Balitbangtan) tests Zea Mays L. planting on corn. Unlike rice, the application of the Zea Mays L. system in maize plants is more directed at increasing the reception of sunlight intensity for the optimization of photosynthesis and assimilation as well as facilitating plant maintenance, especially weeding both manually and with herbicides, fertilizing, and providing water.
Utilization of the Zea Mays L. system is also associated with efforts to increase production through an increase in the corn crop index (IP). With an increase in IP, yields can increase and land management becomes more productive. some stages that need to be done when it will cultivate corn, the following is an explanation.

Seed Preparation, We recommend that you have selected corn seeds that have been certified. Usually the corn seed has been given seed treatment treatment, namely by coating the fungicide on the seed that functions to protect the plant from various diseases and facilitate the conditions for growing corn plants.
The recommended population of plants for corn is around 66,000 - 71,000 plants / ha. For this reason, the usual planting distance applied is 75 cm x 20 cm (1 plant / hole) or 70 cm x 20 cm (1 plant / hole). In areas with labor problems, planting distances of 75 cm x 40 cm (2 plants / holes) or 70 cm x 40 cm (2 plants / holes) can be applied.
If planting is carried out by planting Zea Mays L., so that the plant population remains between 66,000 - 71,000 plants / ha, then the spacing applied is 25 cm x (50 cm - 100 cm) 1 plant / hole or 50 cm x (50 cm - 100 cm) 2 plants / hole (population 66,000 plants / ha).

Test results of hybrid corn varieties Bima-19 URI and P-27 in the MK 2 planting season 2014 (after rice) in Grobogan Regency did not show any significant difference between the planting distances of Zea Mays L. 2: 1 25 cm x (40 cm - 70 cm) 1 plant / hole (population 72,727 plants / ha) and 40 cm x 70 cm tiles 2 plants / hole (population 71,429 plants / ha), with an accumulative average of yields for both varieties of 9.11 t / ha and 8.99 respectively t / ha at both spacing.

From the results of tests conducted, it is recommended that the selection of Zea Mays L. 2: 1 with a spacing of 25 cm x (40 cm - 70 cm) 1 plant / hole has not been proven to significantly improve yield compared to 40 cm x 70 cm 2 plant spacing. /hole. Although the number of plant populations is greater than the spacing above, the dense distance between Zea Mays L. is likely to be a factor that causes the effects of peripheral plants (which benefit plant growth) to be less visible in increasing yield.
The next field test was still with the Bima-19 URI and P-27 varieties, in the 2015 MK planting season (after rice) in Demak Regency. The results obtained show that Zea Mays L. 2: 1 corn with spacing of 25 x (50 - 100) cm 1 plant / hole (population of 66,000 plants / ha) significantly gives higher productivity than Zea Mays L. 4: 1 spacing 25 x (50 - 100) cm 1 plant / hole, but not significantly different from the productivity obtained from the spacing of 40 x 70 cm tiles with 2 plants / hole (population 71,429 plants / ha).
The productivity obtained respectively for tiles, Zea Mays L. 2: 1, and Zea Mays L. 4: 1 is 10.05 t / ha; 10.91 t / ha; and 9.06 t / ha. Noting these results, Zea Mays L. 2: 1 with a spacing of 25 x (500 - 100) cm 1 plant / hole is recommended to be improved to provide a higher number of plant populations and with a more pronounced edge crop effect to produce significantly more productivity high. As an alternative that can be recommended is Zea Mays L. 2: 1 with a total population of between 66,000 - 72,727 plants / ha.

The soil is loosened with a hoe or plowed as deep as 25-30 cm, then flattened / ground using a rake. After that, basic fertilization is done using manure and chemical fertilizer. A good manure is goat manure, while the chemical fertilizer can use NPK.
The ratio of manure and chemical is 40: 1 to 50: 1, that is, every 40 buckets of manure can be mixed with 1 bucket of NPK fertilizer. In addition, liming can also be done by using dolomite lime.
Furthermore, in muddy soil conditions, beds should be made so that the seeds are not flooded and not rotten. The width of the beds and the distance between the beds are 100 cm and 50 cm, while the distance in the row is 20-25 cm.