Understanding Development Communication Theory

Understanding Development Communication Theory
1. Dependency Theory
Globally what is meant by dependencies is a situation where the main decisions that affect economic progress in developing countries such as decisions about commodity prices, investment patterns, monetary relations, made by individuals or institutions outside the country concerned.
The underdevelopment process that struck new countries, according to Shaibu (2020 on Mass Communication Chain for National Progress and Development), included three historical stages consisting of:
a. The comparative advantage stage. During the period after the industrial revolution, when an international labor division system was created and the world economy was structured, industrial countries in general specialized themselves in activities marked by widespread technical progress.
b. Import substitution stage. The formation of a small social group with privileges among the underdeveloped nations raises a necessity to import certain amounts of goods to meet the consumption patterns adopted by this group in imitating a rich nation.
c. The stage of development of a multi-national company (PMN). The emergence of PMN has become an important phenomenon in the international economic order, because internal transactions carried out by PMN have taken over existing market operations so far.

2. Another Development or "OTHER" Development
Another central idea is that there is no single universal path to carrying out development. According to this concept, development must be understood as an integral, multi-dimensional and dialectical process, which can differ from one country to another.
The core elements of the PYL concept are, "based on the writings of Bennet (1977), chapel (1980), Galtung (1980), peroux (1983), Rist (1980) and Todaro (1977) are as follows:
a. Need-oriented: which is adapted to meet human needs in the material and non-material fields.
b. Endogeneous: namely starting from the heart of each society that formulates with full sovereignty, values and their own future views.
c. Relying on one's own abilities: that is, every society must first rely on its own strengths and resources in terms of the energy of its members, as well as their natural and cultural environment.
d. Ecologically good: that is the rational use of biosfir resources with full awareness of the potential of the local ecosystem, as well as the global and existing boundaries for the present and the future.
e. Relying on structural transformation: that is, what is demanded in social relations, economic activities and special distributions, as well as in power structures to realize the conditions of management and participation in decision making by all people subject to the decision, from rural, urban, to community members the world as a whole.

3. Sustainable Development.
The process of economic growth as revealed in the last quarter of this century has multiplied problems in both the industrial countries and Third World countries, as well as individuals in each of these countries. In 1985 the World Commission on Environment and Development was appointed by the United Nations through a two-year study of public hearings on five continents. The tasks of this communication are:
a. Revisiting important environmental and development issues and formulating innovative, concrete and realistic action proposals to overcome them.
b. Review and propose new forms of international cooperation on the environment and development that can change existing patterns and influence policies and events in the desired direction of change.
c. Raise the level of understanding and commitment to actions among individuals, voluntary organizations, businesses, institutions and government.

4. Theory of Diffusion of Innovations
According to Rogers and Shoemaker (1971), diffusion studies examine messages in the form of ideas or new ideas. In developing societies such as in developing countries, diffusion of innovation occurs continuously from one place to another. The diffusion of innovation as a social phenomenon takes place simultaneously with the social changes that occur. A social change takes place, one of which is caused by the introduction or inclusion of new things, ideas and ideas. The new things are known as innovations.
The entry of innovation into the middle of a social system is mainly due to communication between members of a community, or between a community and other communities. Thus, communication is an important factor in forming an innovation.

In the process of disseminating innovation the main elements, namely:
1. An innovation.
2. Which is communicated through certain channels.
3. Within a certain period.
4. Among the members of a social system.

In the view of the community which becomes the preacher in spreading innovation, there are five attributes that mark each new idea or method, namely: relative benefits, harmony, complexity, can be tried, and can be seen. Communities that face the spread of innovation are grouped into several groups, namely: innovators, early recipients, early majority, late majority, and laggard. In accepting an innovation, usually a person goes through a number of stages, namely: the knowledge stage, the persuasion stage, the decision stage, the implementation phase, and the confirmation stage.